解决Python 3.6使用pip时Unable to locate finder for pip._vendor.distlib的问题

最近在笔记本上安装了Python 3.6 x86-64位版本,习惯性的创建了一个virtualenv,然后使用pip安装第三库的时候发生以下错误:

Collecting virtualenv
  Downloading virtualenv-15.0.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl (3.5MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 3.5MB 256kB/s
Installing collected packages: virtualenv
Exception:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\basecommand.py", line 215, in main
    status = self.run(options, args)
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\commands\install.py", line 317, in run
    prefix=options.prefix_path,
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\req\req_set.py", line 742, in install
    **kwargs
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\req\req_install.py", line 831, in install
    self.move_wheel_files(self.source_dir, root=root, prefix=prefix)
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\req\req_install.py", line 1032, in move_wheel_files
    isolated=self.isolated,
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\wheel.py", line 493, in move_wheel_files
    maker.make_multiple(['%s = %s' % kv for kv in console.items()])
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\scripts.py", line 383, in make_multiple
    filenames.extend(self.make(specification, options))
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\scripts.py", line 372, in make
    self._make_script(entry, filenames, options=options)
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\scripts.py", line 276, in _make_script
    self._write_script(scriptnames, shebang, script, filenames, ext)
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\scripts.py", line 212, in _write_script
    launcher = self._get_launcher('t')
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\scripts.py", line 351, in _get_launcher
    result = finder(distlib_package).find(name).bytes
  File "c:\users\corey shaw\appdata\local\programs\python\python36\lib\site-packages\pip\_vendor\distlib\resources.py", line 324, in finder
    raise DistlibException('Unable to locate finder for %r' % package)
pip._vendor.distlib.DistlibException: Unable to locate finder for 'pip._vendor.distlib'

解决方案如下:
1.激活对应的virtualenv,然后执行:

python -m pip uninstall pip setuptools

2.下载

https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py

3.同样在virtualenv激活状态下,执行python get-pip.py,这里要注意路径的问题,很可能路径没配置,导致了把原有python进行了pip卸载重装的动作

centos 6.x 配置iptables

#!/bin/bash
#清除现有所有规则
iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -Z

#允许icmp包进入
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type any -j ACCEPT
#允许本地的数据包
iptables -A INPUT -s localhost -d localhost -j ACCEPT
#允许已经建立和相关的数据包进入
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#允许icmp包出去
iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp any -j ACCEPT
 #允许本地数据包
iptables -A OUTPUT -s localhost -d localhost -j ACCEPT
#允许已经建立和相关的数据包出去
iptables -A OUTPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#允许ESTABLISHED和RELATED状态的包
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

#允许有限的ping功能,每秒10次
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit 10/sec -j ACCEPT

#允许所有本机向外的访问
iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT

# 允许访问22端口,ssh使用
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

# 允许访问8888端口,ss使用
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 8888 -j ACCEPT

#允许访问80,443端口
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

#禁止其他未允许的规则访问
iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT
iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT

service iptables save

如果保持失败,是因为缺少policycoreutils,请先安装

yum -y install policycoreutils

将iptables加入随机启动

chkconfig --level 345 iptables on

查看已有规则

iptables -L -n --line-numbe

解决chrome浏览器访问时提示:ERR_UNSAFE_PORT

想在vps做个测试,看看是否25端口屏蔽是否生效,于是起了一个小web服务在25端口做测试,但是使用chrome访问时,提示:

Error 312 (net::ERR_UNSAFE_PORT): Unknown error

解决方法:
Mac:

/Applications/Google\ Chrome.app/Contents/MacOS/Google\ Chrome --explicitly-allowed-ports=5000,6000,7000

Windows:

C:\Documents and Settings\User\Local Settings\Application Data\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe --explicitly-allowed-ports=5000,6000,7000

限制tomcat仅响应本机请求

在VPS上搭建了nginx和tomcat应用,想通过nginx来反向代理127.0.0.1:8080的tomcat对外提供服务,但是8080端口始终对外所有地址提供监听,修改方法有以下三种:
方案一:使用防火墙拦截8080端口
这个是第一个能想到的做法,直接在iptables里做就可以了,不做过多陈述;

方案二:修改tomcat全局仅监听127.0.0.1
在$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml中找到类似以下描述8080监听的标签段:

<Connector port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />

在该标签中添加:address="127.0.0.1"
完成后为:

<Connector port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
               connectionTimeout="20000"
               address="127.0.0.1"
               redirectPort="8443" />

这样tomcat下发布的所有应用都只能被127.0.0.1访问到了

方案三:修改tomcat下的某一应用仅监听127.0.0.1
在$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml中找到应用路径配置的标签,比如:

<context path="/blog" reloadable="true" docBase="/var/www/blog" />

在context标签中添加监听绑定后修改为:

<context path="/blog" reloadable="true" docBase="/var/www/blog">
    <value className="org.apache.catalina.values.RemoteAddrValue" allow="127.0.0.1" deny="" />
</context>

也可以设置为被特定地址段访问,比如只允许被192.168.1.0-192.168.5.255和192.168.10.0-192.168.15.255这样的IP段访问:

<context path="/blog" reloadable="true" docBase="/var/www/blog">
    <value className="org.apache.catalina.values.RemoteAddrValue"
        allow="192.168.[1-5].*,192.168.[10-15].*" deny="" />
</context>

以上针对tomcat配置文件修改的方案,均为重启tomcat后生效

解决insserv: warning: script '服务名' missing LSB tags and overrides的问题

编写了一个tomcat开机自启动脚本,执行没问题,但是在安装mysql的时候出现了大量的:

insserv: warning: script 'S20tomcat' missing LSB tags and overrides
insserv: warning: script 'tomcat' missing LSB tags and overrides
insserv: There is a loop at service rmnologin if started
insserv: There is a loop between service rmnologin and mountnfs if started
insserv:  loop involving service mountnfs at depth 6
insserv:  loop involving service networking at depth 5
insserv: There is a loop between service tomcat and hwclock if started
insserv:  loop involving service hwclock at depth 3
insserv:  loop involving service mountdevsubfs at depth 2
insserv: There is a loop between service tomcat and udev if started
insserv:  loop involving service udev at depth 1
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!
insserv: Starting tomcat depends on rmnologin and therefore on system facility `$all' which can not be true!

居然还导致mysql安装后的自动配置提示失败,按照LSB tags规范改写脚本如下(debian8环境):

#!/bin/bash
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          bbzhh.com
# Required-Start:    $local_fs $network
# Required-Stop:     $local_fs
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: tomcat service
# Description:       tomcat service daemon
### END INIT INFO
#
# description: Apache Tomcat init script
# processname: tomcat
# chkconfig: 234 20 80
#
#
# Copyright (C) 2014 Miglen Evlogiev
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
# the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
# Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
# version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
# FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
# this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#
# Initially forked from: gist.github.com/valotas/1000094
# Source: gist.github.com/miglen/5590986


#Location of JAVA_HOME (bin files)
export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk

#Add Java binary files to PATH
export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH

#CATALINA_HOME is the location of the bin files of Tomcat
export CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat

#CATALINA_BASE is the location of the configuration files of this instance of Tomcat
export CATALINA_BASE=/opt/tomcat
export CATALINA_BOOTSTRAP=/opt/tomcat/bin/bootstrap.jar

#TOMCAT_USER is the default user of tomcat
export TOMCAT_USER=tomcat

#TOMCAT_USAGE is the message if this script is called without any options
TOMCAT_USAGE="Usage: $0 {\e[00;32mstart\e[00m|\e[00;31mstop\e[00m|\e[00;31mkill\e[00m|\e[00;32mstatus\e[00m|\e[00;31mrestart\e[00m}"

#SHUTDOWN_WAIT is wait time in seconds for java proccess to stop
SHUTDOWN_WAIT=20

tomcat_pid() {
        echo `ps -fe | grep $CATALINA_BOOTSTRAP | grep -v grep | tr -s " "|cut -d" " -f2`
}

start() {
  pid=$(tomcat_pid)
  if [ -n "$pid" ]
  then
    echo -e "\e[00;31mTomcat is already running (pid: $pid)\e[00m"
  else
    # Start tomcat
    echo -e "\e[00;32mStarting tomcat\e[00m"
    #ulimit -n 100000
    #umask 007
    #/bin/su -p -s /bin/sh $TOMCAT_USER
        if [ `user_exists $TOMCAT_USER` = "1" ]
        then
                /bin/su $TOMCAT_USER -c $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
        else
                echo -e "\e[00;31mTomcat user $TOMCAT_USER does not exists. Starting with $(id)\e[00m"
                sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
        fi
        status
  fi
  return 0
}

status(){
          pid=$(tomcat_pid)
          if [ -n "$pid" ]
            then echo -e "\e[00;32mTomcat is running with pid: $pid\e[00m"
          else
            echo -e "\e[00;31mTomcat is not running\e[00m"
            return 3
          fi
}

terminate() {
        echo -e "\e[00;31mTerminating Tomcat\e[00m"
        kill -9 $(tomcat_pid)
}

stop() {
  pid=$(tomcat_pid)
  if [ -n "$pid" ]
  then
    echo -e "\e[00;31mStoping Tomcat\e[00m"
    #/bin/su -p -s /bin/sh $TOMCAT_USER
        sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh

    let kwait=$SHUTDOWN_WAIT
    count=0;
    until [ `ps -p $pid | grep -c $pid` = '0' ] || [ $count -gt $kwait ]
    do
      echo -n -e "\n\e[00;31mwaiting for processes to exit\e[00m";
      sleep 1
      let count=$count+1;
    done

    if [ $count -gt $kwait ]; then
      echo -n -e "\n\e[00;31mkilling processes didn't stop after $SHUTDOWN_WAIT seconds\e[00m"
      terminate
    fi
  else
    echo -e "\e[00;31mTomcat is not running\e[00m"
  fi

  return 0
}

user_exists(){
        if id -u $1 >/dev/null 2>&1; then
        echo "1"
        else
                echo "0"
        fi
}

case $1 in
        start)
          start
        ;;
        stop)
          stop
        ;;
        restart)
          stop
          start
        ;;
        status)
                status
                exit $?
        ;;
        kill)
                terminate
        ;;
        *)
                echo -e $TOMCAT_USAGE
        ;;
esac
exit 0
                                                                                                      

其实解决办法就是在#!/bin/bash下面添加:

### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          bbzhh.com
# Required-Start:    $local_fs $network
# Required-Stop:     $local_fs
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: tomcat service
# Description:       tomcat service daemon
### END INIT INFO

当然,也可以一劳永逸的:

apt-get remove insserv